I see and hear lots of reference to game-based learning these days – the concept isn't new, but is certainly seeing a resurgance of interest with ongoing development of computer-based games and the application of the principles of this sort of game-playing being applied to the design of learning experiences for students.
The report first considers how the notion of game-based learning is defined, with a review of the literature and then offering some thoughts for moving forward. It then addresses the impct and potential impact of game-based learning on education, before considering specifically the implications for future reserach and implications for teachers and schools.
An excellent publication for anyone interested in game-based learning, particularly those looking at doing research in this area.
The main findings are as follows:
The literature was split on the extent to which video games can impact upon overall academic performance.
The studies consistently found that video games can impact positively on problem solving skills, motivation and engagement. However, it was unclear whether this impact could be sustained over time.
Despite some promising results, the current literature does not evidence adequately the presumed link between motivation, attitude to learning and learning outcomes. Overall, the strength of the evidence was often affected by the research design or lack of information about the research design.
For some time now I've used Minecraft as an example of the sort of gaming experience that I believe has application for education. Minecraft is essentially a computerised version of lego on steroids, allowing players to build constructions out of textured cubes in a 3Dprocedurally generated world. There's no pre-determined script or objective – just a mass of construction materials and opportunity to develop whatever you want.
The video above, from PBS Idea Channel, provides a persuasive argument for Minecraft as an educational tool – based largely on the premise that it's so customisabe. I have a son who began using Minecraft soon after its early release in 2010, and have watched with interest how this game has engaged him during the years since. Using this game he has built entire cities, complete with electricity generation and reticulation (which meant he had to solve how to generate the electricity, how to construct circuits etc. and how to solve the storage issue). He has worked with friends to build their own server and manage an installation of the game, and he and his friends have also taught themselves how to program and upload new objects into the Minecraft environment.
From my perspective it's a pretty compelling 'tool' for learning – and it seems that a number of educators from around the world think likewise. The resource Minecraft – a mountain of marvelous learning ideas – has been created as a Google Doc for people to add their own ideas and links to resources to support the use of minecraft in education. already there are several pages of ideas an links there that illustrate how Minecraft can be and is being used to support learning.
Of course, there's always the risk that when a tool or resource such as Minecraft is assimilated into the formal education environment it will end up killing interest and creativity, as highlighted in a recent article in edudemic which looks at the pros and cons of Minecraft in education, but I do believe there's a lot we, as educators, can learn from the phenomena that is Minecraft, and we'd do well to consider how we might embrace the principles upon which the game is based in our formal education system.
Adults these days… seem really into chastising video games those crazy kids are into as symptomatic of the human race's inevitable, steady decline. Like every hobby and medium, legitimate concerns regarding these technologies certainly exist, but their complete lack of validity is decidedly not amongst them. Intrepid educators, developers, administrators, and parents alike know that new and digital media can be harnessed for more productive ends, such as helping students soak up various academic subjects or training new employees. Even the FBI recognizes and uses video games as valuable learning tools! Because the push toward incorporating these resources still exists in a comparatively inchoate state, anyone curious about how they apply to educational settings should keep up with the latest movements and technologies currently shaping the movement’s future. Blogs can help with that.
I agree with her that the role of game-based learning is still not fully understood or appreciated – but our lack of understanding should not hold us back from being open to investigate what the potential may be. To that end the list of blogs collated here by Jasmine is very useful – not only because of the information they contain, but also because of the way that this illustrates how the open publication of new thinking, research and ideas on blogs like these represents a part of the new way that knowledge is being constructed and shared in the 'knowledge age'.
Reflecting here I thought about some of the more recent posts I've made about educational gaming and gamefication, including;
Some thoughts I had about the use of Minecraft in education. Since that post I've spoken to a number of teachers who have described to me how they're using that as a part of their work with students.
Comments about the Game-based Handbook, published by the European Commision, that provides a framework for games-based pedagogy.
As this breadth/depth of knowledge develops and is shared, I'd certainly hope that we begin to see more evidence of these approaches being adopted in classrooms – intentionally, purposefully and in ways that engage and excite learners.
His latest effort has involved creating a substantial virtual world that is "self-sustaining"; in terms of the automated processing of the minerals mined into various forms of fuel and energy.
How has he learned to do this? He and his small group of friends have shared the things they've learned through trial and error, and by following the online tips and support that are built into Minecraft's user interface.
For the more complex things, they've watched instructional, videos that have been uploaded to YouTube by other users, and by reading the blogs and help sites created by the user community. This is the essence of a highly performaing, informal learning community!
During the recent holiday period my son and his friends even formed themselves into a team to develop instructional videos which they intend to upload onto YouTube to share what they've learned, in particular, their attempts at 'modding' the environment to create the specific features and components they want in it – thus they've becoming contributors to the community of users as well.
As the interested parent of a young user, and as an educator, these ideas resonnate with me – and I'm sure there are a number of other things that people could come up with as well. For me, Minecraft is a welcome addition to the field of virtual worlds, and a welcome alternative to the first person shoot 'em up sorts of virtual world games that have been so popular in the past (and still!).
I'd be keen to hear stories from anyone who is actually dong the sorts of things suggested by Miller in the Edutopia article -seems we have a lot to learn from each other in terms of harnessing the potential of these sorts of environments, and of how to accommodate the contribution of informal learning that is going on among many of our learners.
I've just been reading this new guide published by Edutopia, titled A parent's guide to 21st Century Learning. As with much of the material published on the Edutopia site, this is a really useful collection of tips, ideas and links for parents and educators alike (and I qualify on both fronts
The ideas in the booklet are grouped according to the age of the students, and use the “4Cs” from the Partnership for 21st Century Skills as a framework for emphasising the educative value of the learning resources that are shared.
Collaboration: Students are able to work effectively with diverse groups and exercise flexibility in making compromises to achieve common goals.
Creativity: Students are able to generate and improve on original ideas and also work creatively with others.
Communication : Students are able to communicate effectively across multiple media and for various purposes.
Critical thinking: Students are able to analyze, evaluate, and understand complex systems and apply strategies to solve problems.
Each resource is briefly described, followed by a section on 'how to get involved', providing practical suggestions for how to engage with and use the resource with you children.
The resources provide a range of engagements, from projects that promote particiation in social change and the development of digitial citizenship, to using online games and social media to promote collaboration and support project based learning – plus everything in between.
I like the section at the end titled Ten tips for bringing 21st century skills home which provides sompractical tips and links for parents wondering how to foster the 4Cs at home.
If you're not a member of the Edutopia site, here's a good reason to do so – it costs nothing to sign up, and the resource is free tod ownload to members.
I spent today at the International eLearning Futures Conference (follow #ielfc11 on twitter) at Unitec in Auckland. I had a slot after lunch speaking about future trends in eLearning, which provided a good follow-on from Steve Wheeler's opening address.
In my talk I spoke of several things that are shaping the expectations learners have of our educational institutions and the courses we provide – from mobile devices, to visualisation tools, to open content – and gamefication.
So it was with interest I came across the e-book above when I arrived home this evening. Titled The GameIT Handbook, the book has been funded by the European Commision, and provides a framework for games-based pedagogy.
For those unfamiliar with games-based learning, this provides a pretty useful introduction, particularly the early chapters. For those who are more familiar with the concept, the book provides some useful case studies that unpack the ideas more and illustrate a range of contexts in which games-based learning approaches might be used.
Te concept of gamification is gaining traction in education now (although this idea has been around for a long time, even pre-computer). My recently arrived colleague at CORE, DK, has also been promoting this thinking among our team since he arrived. For some, the word 'gamification' implies a trivialising of learning, based on having fun and therefore is not taken seriously. For others it is seen as the domain of the serious online gaming fraternity who are, frankly, frightening in terms of their addiction to the games they play. The truth is nowhere near either of these views, and so it was with interest I came across this paper from Educause, providing a very simply response to 7 fundamental questions people have about the concept of gamification.
The 15th International Conference on Thinking(ICOT) has just begun here at Queen’s University, Belfast, and we’re sitting listening to a keynote presentation by Diane F. Halpern from Claremont McKenna College in California. Diane and her colleagues Keith Millis and Arthur Graesser are the Project Director of Operation ARIES introduced in the video below:
ARIES (Acquiring Research Investigative and Evaluative Skills) is an educational program that teaches scientific reasoning/critical thinking using principles from the science of learning and serious games. Students learn via an interactive text, which is followed with an automated tutoring session that involves two animated agents and the human student. Through a cover story that the world is being taken over by aliens who are using bad science, the program’s goal is to create durable learning that transfers across academic domains.
Students log in to become investigators with the Federal Bureau of Science, with their first task being to read an online text that introduces them to over 20 core concepts in science which will help them understand how to identify the flawed scientific thinking being promoted by the ‘aliens’ in the game.
Diane and her team have been researching the impact of using this game by secondary students, referencing other research around the use game-based learning to stimulate learning, presenting the results of a number of experiments demonstrating significant learning improvements in learning.
A stimulating keynote to start the conference, linking key understandings and ideas about thinking and learning, with authentic science concepts – all embraced in the context of a stimulating online game.
ANZAC day today – and another change to reflect on what the day is all about, and the lessons we have learned (or not?) about the significance of this event in the history of our nation. I have a number of images in my mind, formed from conversations with those who were involved in the campaign, and from the books and movies I’ve been exposed to over the years – along with the stories that are told at ANZAC parades. So I was very interested when I came across this resource from the Australian Broadcasting Corporation, which brings to life what happened at Gallipoli on that day.
Gallipoli: The First Day was created when ABC Innovation producer Meena Tharmarajah saw the terrain at Anzac Cove and realised that seeing the terrain gave her a whole new perspective on the battle. She realised that you could use mapping technologies that are now available to tell the story of these events in a recreation of that environment, giving people a far deeper insight. It would be the next best thing to being there.
The 3D Map of the peninsula was built using topographic data taken from 1916 Turkish maps. Surveys of all the Gallipoli battlefields were made in 1916 by the Turkish Mapping Directorate under Brigadier General Mehmet Şevki Paşa and 43 maps were made. As the data is true to the period our 3D map doesn’t show contemporary building developments and roads. Sydney University Archaeology Department then supplied the GIS data used to shape and create the terrain topography.
The scenes that tell the story of the day were created in 3D using Cinema4D software. The models of soldiers and objects that populate these scenes were meticulously created for Gallipoli by Plastic Wax, Sydney, based on photographs and descriptions recorded at Gallipoli.
The site contains a useful teacher resource area that provides a range of ideas for you to implement in the classroom.
There’s also the option to download a version of the resource to run it directly from your own computer (NB need Adobe AIR installed).
Although it is developed in Australia, there’s plenty here to make it relevant to NZ, including reference to several New Zealanders in the profiles section, which provides some excellent background material for use with the teacher resource ideas.
All in all, an excellent resource that I can see would capture the imaginations of many school students. I can imagine it being used particularly effectively with a whole class and an interactive whiteboard.
A colleague recently said to me, “I aim to learn at least one new thing each day from my Twitter connections”. That pretty much sums up why I became hooked on Twitter – the network of people I’ve connected with provide me each day with thoughtful comments and links to sites that are a continual source of new ideas and stimulation. Here are just a few that I’ve been looking at over the Easter weekend (apologies for not referencing the people from whose ‘tweets’ I linked to these – it only occurred to me afterwards to blog this, and I was simply looking at a row of open tabs.)
Shakespeare on Blogging – a very clever and humorous interpretation of the advice that Shakespeare may have provided for those looking at becoming proficient in communicating through blogging.
Ways of teaching thinking – I’m very interested in the development of thinking as a part of what we teach in schools. It’s identified as one of the key competencies in the curriculum, but how well do we understand how to develop it in our students? This link highlights four thinking-centered approaches for infusing high-level thinking instruction into your regular curriculum
The evolution of classroom technology – as someone who taught Education Technology classes for 11 years I’m always interested in this sort of post which provides a useful historical overview, complete with images, of the technologies that have been used over time.
Top ten sites for note taking – note taking at my computer is becoming increasingly common (as opposed to the usual paper format) and this list provides links to ten very useful note taking applications. Provided by David Kapuler at TechLearning.
Using Evernote – I’ve begun using Evernote on my laptop and my mobile devices recently – still getting the hang of it all. This tutorial provides some excellent tips on how to use it well. Evernote is a great, free resource that allows you to easily capture information using whatever device or operating system you use. It then makes this information accessible and searchable from anywhere